Jeff Mangum's Science and Technical References

TIP Last Update: JeffMangum - 30 December 2012

Science References



Ammonia (Copied to ADS private library)

2012/12/25: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Menten, K. M., etal., 2010, A&A, 521, L7, "Herschel/HIFI Deepens the Circumstellar NH3 Enigma"
    • Basically, the problem is that the NH3 abundance measured in CSEs is too large by about 10^5 or 10^6.
  2. Myers, P. C. & Benson, P. J. 1983, ApJ, 266, 309. "Dense Cores in Dark Clouds II. NH3 Observations and Star Formation"
  3. Pauls, T. A., Wilson, T. L., Bieging, J. H., & Martin, R. N. 1983, A&A, 124, 23. "Clumping in Orion KL: 2-Arcsecond Maps of Ammonia"
  4. Gusten, R., Walmsley, C. M., Ungerechts, H., & Churchwell, E. 1985, A&A, 142, 381. "Temperature Determinations in Molecular Clouds of the Galactic Center"
  5. Takano, T., Stutzki, J., Fukui, Y., & Winnewisser, G. 1986, A&A, 167, 333. "High-Angular Resolution NH3 Observations of the Bipolar Flow Source Near NGC2071"
  6. Schilke, P., Mauersberger, R., Walmsley, C. M., & Wilson, T. L. 1990, A&A, 227, 220. "Vibrationally Excited Ammonia in the Galaxy"
  7. Bachiller, R., Martin-Pintado, J. & Fuente, A. 1993, ApJ, 417, L45


2012/12/25: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Melsheimer, C. 2005, Radio Science, 40, RS1007 "Intercomparison of General Purpose Clear Sky Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Models for the Millimeter/Submillimeter Spectral Range" NOTE: Very good overview of atmospheric models.

Formaldehyde (Copied to ADS private library)

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  1. Taquet, V., Ceccarelli, C., and Kahane, C. 2012, ApJL, 748, L3, "Formaldehyde and Methanol Deuteration in Protostars: Fossils from a Past Fast High-density Pre-collapse Phase"
    • Model not very believable.
  2. Ginsburg, A. etal. 2011, ApJ, 736, 149, "Galactic H2CO Densitometry. I. Pilot Survey of Ultracompact H II Regions and Methodology"
  3. Guzman, V. etal 2011, submitted to A&A, "H2CO in the Horsehead PDR: Photo-Desorption of Dust Grain Ice Mantles"
    • In the dense core pure gas-phase chemistry adequately explains H2CO abundance.
    • In PDR, nee photo-desorption of H2CO into gas-phase to explain H2CO abundance.
  4. Madzunkov, S. M. etal. 2009, ApJ, 697, 801 "Formation of Formaldehyde and Carbon Dioxide on an Icy Grain Analog Using Fast Hydrogen Atoms"
    • Measure surface formation of H2CO via H+CO -> HCO+H -> H2CO.
  5. Roueff, E., Dartois, E., Geballe, T. R., and Gerin, M. 2006, A&A, 447, 963 "Infrared Detection of Gas Phase Formaldehyde Towards the High Mass Protostar W33A"
    • First infrared detection of gas-phase H2CO in an interstellar cloud (seen in many comets).
    • Derive kinetic temperature of ~100K.

Comets (Copied to ADS private library)

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  1. Biver, N. etal. 2011, A&A, 528, A142, "Molecular Investigations of Comets C/2002 X5 (Kudo-Fujikawa), C/2002 V1 (NEAT), and C/2006 P1 (McNaught) at Small Heliocentric Distances"
  2. Biver, N. etal. 2012, A&A, 539, A68, "Ammonia and Other Parent Molecules in Comet 10P/Tempel 2 from Herschel/HIFI and Ground-Based Radio Observations"
    • Very cool measurements which are capable to mapping outgassing of this well-studied comet.
    • Rotational temperature from CH3OH found to be 16+-7 to 32+-8 K during period September 1999 through July 2010, consistent with a gas kinetic temperature of Tk = 25 K. Find, though, that Trot = 21+-5 K on the night-side and Trot = 31+-4 K on the day-side of the comet.
  3. Paganini, L. etal. 2012, ApJL, 748, L13, "The Chemical Composition of CO-rich Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) AT R h = 2.4 and 2.0 AU before Perihelion"
    • High fractional abundance of CO identifies this comet as "CO-rich".
  4. Drahus, M., Kupper, M., Jarchow, C., Paganini, L., Hartogh, P., and Villanueva, G. L. 2010, A&A, 510, A55, "The HCN Molecule as a Tracer of the Nucleus Rotation of Comet 73P-C/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3"
  5. Tacconi-Garman, L. E., Schloerb, F. P., and Claussen, M. J. 1990, ApJ, 364, 672, "High spectral resolution observations and kinematic modeling of the 1667 MHz hyperfine transition of OH in Comets Halley (1982i), Giacobini-Zinner (1984e), Hartley-Good (1985l), Thiele (1985m), and Wilson (1986l)"
    • Excellent introduction to using OH measurements to constrain OH production models.
  6. Milam, S. N. etal. 2006, ApJ, 649, 1169, "Formaldehyde in Comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), C/2002 T7 (LINEAR), and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT): Investigating the Cometary Origin of H2CO"
    • One of the worst papers I have ever read.
    • Many unsubstantiated conclusions, including:
      • "Existence" of secondary spectral component in H2CO spectra of LINEAR (comparing different H2CO transitions from ortho and para, which is foolish).
      • No evidence for claimed extension of H2CO distribution along Sun-Comet position angle.
  7. Schloerb, F. P. & Gerard, E. 1985, AJ, 90, 1117, "Models of Cometary Emission in the 18-cm OH Transitions: The Predicted Behavior of Comet Halley"

DR21(OH) (Copied to ADS private library)

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  1. Lai, S.-P., Girart, J. M., & Crutcher, R. M. 2003, ApJ, 598, pp. 392-399 "Interferometric Mapping of Magnetic Fields in Star-forming Regions. III. Dust and CO Polarization in DR 21(OH)"
  2. Lai, S.-P., Velusamy, T., & Langer, W. D. 2003, ApJ, 596, pp. L239-L242 "The High Angular Resolution Measurement of Ion and Neutral Spectra as a Probe of the Magnetic Field Structure in DR 21(OH)"
  3. Fischer, J., Sanders, D. B., Simon, M., & Solomon, P. M. 1985, ApJ, 293, 508 "High Velocity Gas Flows Associated with H2 Emission Regions - How Are They Related and What Powers Them?"
  4. Liechti, S. & Walmsley, C. M., 1997, A&A, 321, 625-633 "Thermal Methanol Emission in the DR21 Complex. Interferometric Maps: a Comparison with Maser Emission"
  5. Richardson, K. J., Sandell, G., Cunningham, C. T., & Davies, S. R. 1994, A&A, 286, 555-564 "DR 21(OH), a Cluster in the Making. 1: Observations in Carbon Monosulphide and Methanol"
  6. Wilson, T. L. & Mauersberger, R. 1990, A&A, 239, 305-318 "The Internal Structure of Molecular Clouds. I - C18O, C34S and NH3 Maps of the DR 21/W 75 S Region"
  7. Dickel, J. R., Dickel, H. R., & Wilson, W. J. 1978, ApJ, 223, 840-853 "The Detailed Structure of CO in Molecular Cloud Complexes. II. The W75-DR21 Region"
  8. Mayer, C. H., Waak, J. A., Cheung, A. C., & Chui, M. F. 1973, ApJ, 182, L65-L69 "Ammonia in DR21(OH) and NGC2264"
  9. Ward-Thompson, D. & Robson, E. I. 1991, MNRAS, 248, 670 "Dust Around HII Regions - III: IRAS Evidence for an Old SNR in the W75S Region?"
  10. Wilson, T. L., Martin-Pintado, J., Gardner, F. F., & Henkel, C. 1982, A&A, 107, L10-L12 "Formaldehyde Emission From DR21(OH)"
  11. Richardson, K. J., Sandell, G., & Krisciunas, K. 1989, A&A, 224, 199-205 "Small-Scale Structure in the DR 21/DR 21(OH) Region - A High Resolution Continuum Study at Millimetre and Submillimetre Wavelengths"
  12. Gear, W. K., Chandler, C. J., Moore, T. J. T., Cunningham, C. T., & Duncan, W. D. 1988, MNRAS, 231, 47p "Submillimetre Observations Reveal that DR21(OH) is a Double Source"
  13. Woody, D. P., Scott, S. L., Scoville, N. Z., Mundy, L. G., Sargent, A. I., Padin, S., Tinney, C. G., & Wilson, C. D. 1989, ApJ, 227, L41 "Interferometric Observations of 1.4mm Continuum Sources"
  14. Padin, S., Sargent, A. I., Mundy, L. G., Scoville, N. Z., Woody, D. P., Leighton, R. B., Masson, C. R., Scott, S. L., Seling, T. V., Stapelfeldt, K. R., & Terebey, S. 1989, ApJ, 337, L45 "Interferometric C18O Observations of DR21(OH) and L1551 IRS5 at Lambda=1.4mm"
  15. Johnston, K. J., Henkel, C., & Wilson, T. L. 1984, ApJ, 285, L85 "2(11)-2(12) Formaldehyde Emission from DR21(OH)"

Dust (Copied to ADS private library)

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  1. Denova-Santos, R. etal. 2011, ApJ, 743, 67, "Detection of Anomalous Microwave Emission in the Pleiades Reflection Nebula with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and the COSMOSOMAS Experiment"
    • Spinning dust.
  2. Coupeaud, A. etal. 2011, A&A, 535, A124, "Low-Temperature FIR and Submillimetre Mass Absorption Coefficient of Interstellar Silicate Dust Analogues"
  3. Shetty, R., Kauffmann, J., Schnee, S., Goodman, A. A., Ercolano, B. 2009, ApJ, 696, 2234, "The Effect of Line-of-Sight Temperature Variation and Noise on Dust Continuum Observations"
    • Note that in practice, for deriving dust properties from the emergent SED, it may be necessary to exclude fluxes with λ lsim 100 μm due to the contribution of embedded sources as well as transiently heated very small grains (Li & Draine 2001), depending on the environment.
    • Least-squares SED fits to fluxes in the R-J regime, as opposed to the Wien regime, may provide accurate spectral index and density-weighted temperature, or column temperature, estimates.
    • In a comparison of the flux ratio and least-squares fitting methods when only three fluxes are available, we find that a direct fit with the spectral index held fixed provides more accurate estimates of the column temperature. The flux ratio method can be initially used to estimate the value of the spectral index to be held fixed for a least-squares SED fit.
  4. Lommen, D., Maddison, S. T., Wright, C. M., van Dishoeck, E. F., Wilner, D. J., and Bourke, T. L. 2009, A&A, 495, 869, "Large grains in discs around young stars: ATCA observations of WW Chamaeleontis, RU Lupi, and CS Chamaeleontis"
  5. Nakagawa, N. 1980, in "Interstellar Molecules", B. H. Andrew (ed.) p. 365 "Interstellar Molecules on Dust Grains"
  6. Tielens, A. G. G. M., & Hagen, W. 1982, A&A, 114, 245 "Model Calculations of the Molecular Composition of Interstellar Grain Mantles"
  7. Mezger, P. G., Chini, R., Kreysa, E., & Gemuend, H.-P. 1986, A&A, 160, 324 "Lambda 1300 Micron Dust Emission from Giant Molecular Clouds Close to the Galactic Center"
  8. Schloerb, F. P., Snell, R. L., & Schwartz, P. R. 1987, ApJ, 319, 426 "1300 Micron Continuum and C18O Line Mapping of the Giant Molecular Cloud Cores in Orion, W49, and W51"
  9. Gordon, M. A. 1987, ApJ, 326, 258 "The Continuum Spectra of Dust Complexes Associated with W3 Main, M42, W49A, and W51A"
  10. Harrington, J. P., Monk, D. J., & Clegg, R. E. S. 1988, MNRAS, 231, 577 "Thermal Infrared Emission by Dust in the Planetary Nebula NGC 3918: A Model Analysis of IRAS Observations"
  11. Gear, W. K., Robson, E. I., & Griffin, M. J. 1988, MNRAS, 231, 55p "Millimetre and Submillimetre Observations of the Emission from Dust in Compact HII Regions"
  12. Weintraub, D. A., Sandell, G., & Duncan, W. D. 1989, ApJ, 340, L69 "Submillimeter Measurements of T Tauri and FU Orionis Stars"
  13. Lis, D. C. & Leung, C. M. 1990 (preprint) "Size and Density Distribution of Very Small Dust Grains in the Barnard 5 Cloud"
  14. Beckwith, S. V. W., Sargent, A. I., Chini, R. S., & Guesten, R. (preprint) "A Survey for Circumstellar Disks Around Young Stellar Objects"
  15. Hildebrand, R. H. 1983, QJRAS, 24, 267-282 "The Determination of Cloud Masses and Dust Characteristics from Submillimeter Thermal Emission"
  16. Goldsmith, P. F., Bergin, E. A., Lis, D. C. 1997, ApJ, 491, 615 "Carbon Monoxide and Dust Column Densities: The Dust-to-Gas Ratio and Structure of Three Giant Molecular Cloud Cores"
  17. Drane, B. T. 2006, ApJ, 636, 1114 "On the Submillimeter Opacity of Protoplanetary Disks" (or get it directly from The Astrophysical Journal)
  18. Eisner, J. A., Hillenbrand, L, A., Carpenter, J. M., and Wolf, S., 2005, ApJ, 635, 396 Constraining the Evolutionary Stage of Class I Protostars: Multiwavelength Observations and Modeling. Very good dust model discussion. Combines NIR/FIR/mm measurements.
  19. Padoan, P., Cambresy, L., Juvela, M., Kritsuk, A., Langer, W. D., and Norman, M. L. 2006, ApJ, 649, 807-815 "Can We Trust the Dust? Evidence of Dust Segregration in Molecular Clouds"

Frequencies (Copied to ADS private library except for the following)

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  1. Hargreaves, R. J., Li, G., and Bernath, P. F., 2011, ApJ, 735, 111 "Hot NH3 Spectra for Astrophysical Applications"
    • Nice analysis and derivation of vibration frequencies for NH3.
  2. Kukolich, S. G. 1967, Phys. Rev., 156, 83
    • NH3(3,3) = 23870.129610 MHz for F1=4-4 hyperfine
  3. Kukolich, S. G. & Wofsy, S. C. 1970, J. Chem. Phys., 52, 5477
    • NH3(4,4) = 24139.416890 MHz for F1=4-4 hyperfine
  4. Johns, J. W. C. & McKellar, A. R. W. 1977, JMS, 64, 327 "The nu3 Fundamental Band of HDCO"
  5. DeLucia, F., & Gordy, W. 1969, Phys. Rev., 187, 58 "Molecular-Beam Maser for the Shorter-Millimeter-Wave Region: Spectral Constants of HCN and DCN"
  6. Bocquet, R. etal. 1996, JMS, 177, 154-159 "The Ground State Rotational Spectrum of Formaldehyde"

Isotope Ratios

Don't bother copying to Zotero.

  1. Langer, Graedel, Frerking, & Armentrout 1984, ApJ, 277, 581 Discussion of chemical fractionation in carbon-bearing molecules.
  2. Guesten & Ungerechts 1985, A&A, 145, 241 Discussion of carbon and nitrogen enrichment in the local disk and galactic center.
  3. Townes & Cheung 1969, ApJL, 157, L103
  4. Thaddeus 1972, ARAA, 10, 305
  5. Matsakis 1979, ApJ, 234, 861
  6. Fulkerson & Clark 1974, ApJ, 287, 723
  7. Lucas, R. & Liszt, H. 1988 (preprint) "Interstellar Isotope Ratios from MM-Wave Molecular Absorption Spectra"
  8. Wilson, T. L., Bieging, J., Downes, D. & Gardner, F. F. 1976, A&A, 51, 303 "Observations of the Carbon-13 Isotope of Formaldehyde"
  9. Wannier 1980, ARAA, 18, 399 "Nuclear Abundances and Evolution of the Interstellar Medium"
  10. Dearborn, D., Tinsley, B., & Schramm, D. 1978, ApJ, 223, 557 "On the Origin and Evolution of Isotopes of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen"
  11. Audouze, J., Lequeux, J., & Vigroux, L. 1975, A&A, 43, 71 "Isotopes of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen as Probes of Nucleosynthesis, Stellar Mass Losses and Galactic Evolution"
  12. Hawkins, I, Jura, M., & Meyer, D. 1985, ApJ, 294, L131 "The 12C/13C Isotope Ratio Toward Zeta Ophiuchi"
  13. Guesten, R., Henkel, C., & Batrla, W. 1985, A&A, 149, 195 "H212CO/H213CO Ratios from Molecular Clouds Near the Galactic Center"
  14. Zuckerman, B., Buhl, D., Palmer, P., & Snyder, L. 1974, ApJ, 189, 217 "12C/13C Abundance Ratios from Observations of Interstellar H213C18O"
  15. Gardner, F. F. & Whiteoak, J. B. 1979, MNRAS, 188, 331 "The 12C/13C Abundance Ratio Derived from H2CO Observations of Southern Sources"
  16. Henkel, C., Wilson, T. L., & Bieging, J. 1982, A&A, 109, 344 "Further 12C/13C Ratios from Formaldehyde: A Variation with Distance from the Galactic Center"
  17. Gardner, F. F. & Winnewisser, G. 1975, ApJ, 197, L73 "Observations of the J=1-0 Transitions of the 13C Isotopic Species of Cyanoacetylene (HCCCN) in the Direction of Sagittarius B2"
  18. Frerking, M. A., Wilson, R. W., Linke, R. A., & Wannier, P. G. 1980, ApJ, 240, 65 "Isotopic Abundance Ratios in Interstellar Carbon Monosulfide"
  19. Guelin, M. & Thaddeus, P. 1979, ApJ, 227, L139 "Detection of HC18O+ in Sagittarius B2"
  20. Henkel, C., Wilson, T. L., & Downes, D. 1979, A&A, 73, L13 "Observations of the Oxygen-18 Isotope of Formaldehyde"
  21. Kutner, M. L, Machnik, D. E., Tucker, K. D., & Massano, W. 1982, ApJ, 254, 538 "Isotope Rations in Interstellar Formaldehyde From 6 Centimeter Observations"
  22. Wannier, P. G., Penzias, A. A., & Jenkins, E. B. 1982, ApJ, 254, 100 "The 12CO/13CO Abundance Ratio Toward Zeta Ophiuchi"
  23. Crutcher, R. M. & Watson, W. D. 1981, ApJ, 244, 855 "Carbon Isotope Fractionation in CO, the 13CO/12CO Ratio, and the Nature of the Diffuse Interstellar Cloud Toward Zeta Ophiuchi"
  24. Gardner, F. F., Ribes, J. C., & Cooper, B. F. C. 1971, Astroph. Lett., 9, 181 "Detection of the 18O Isotope of Formaldehyde at 4388 MHz"
  25. Bieging, J. H., Wilson, T. L., & Downes, D. 1981, (preprint) "Formaldehyde Absorption Measurements of Selected Galactic Molecular Clouds"
  26. Stenholm, L. G. 1985, A&A, 149, 90 "The Accuracy of Molecular Cloud Abundances and Isotopic Ratios"
  27. Henkel, C., Guesten, R., & Gardner, F. F. 1985, A&A, 143, 148 "12C/13C Ratios from Formaldehyde in the Inner Galactic Disk"
  28. Wannier, P. G., Penzias, A. A., Linke, R. A., & Wilson, R. W. 1976, ApJ, 204, 26 "Isotope Abundances in Interstellar Molecular Clouds"
  29. Watson, W. D., Anicich, V. G., & Huntress, W. T. Jr. 1976, ApJ, 205, L165 "Measurement and Significance of the Reaction 13C+ + 12CO -- 12C+ + 13CO for Alteration of the 12C/13C Ratio in Interstellar Molecules"
  30. Butner, H. M. etal. 2007, ApJ, 659, L137, "Discovery of Interstellar Heavy Water"
    • Detected D2O in both emission and absorption.
    • Also detect what appears to be rather broad CH3OD emission in same spectrum.
  31. Wouterloot, J. G. A., Henkel, C., Brand, J., and Davis, G. R. 2008, A&A, in press, "Galactic Interstellar 18O/17O Ratios -- A Radial Gradient?"
    • Use LVG models of C18O and C17O to derive isotope ratio.
    • Not clear that they properly allowed for variation in Tk and n(H2) when doing fits.
    • Measure gradient with Rg of 2.88+-0.11 to 4.16+-0.09 to 5.03+-0.46 when going from 0 to 10 to 16.5 kpc.

Molecular Excitation


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  1. Nicolas, S., Bigarre, L., and Paletou, F. 2011, A&A, 527, A1, "Broyden's Method for the Solution of the Multilevel Non-LTE Radiation Transfer Problem (Research Note)"
  2. Busquet, G., Estalella, R., Zhang, Q., Viti, S., Palau, A., Ho, P. T. P., Sánchez-Monge, Á. 2011, A&A, 525, A141, "N2H+ depletion in the massive protostellar cluster AFGL 5142"
    • The chemical model used to explain the differences seen in the NH3/N2H+ ratio indicates that density along with temperature is a key parameter in determining the abundances of both NH3 and N2H+. The high density (n 106 cm-3) and temperature (T 70 K) reached in the central core allow molecules such as CO to evaporate from grain mantles. The CO desorption causes a significant destruction of N2H+ which favors the formation of HCO+.
    • The central core has a higher temperature and density than the western and eastern cores. Thus, a different chemistry can develop due to CO evaporation from the grain mantles. The CO desorption in the central core of AFGL5194 leads to the destruction of N2H+, so that NH3/N2H+ abundance ratio increases considerably relative to the value found in the western and eastern cores. This is supported by the fact that 13CO is not frozen out in the central core, whereas it is faintly detected in the western and eastern cores (Zhang et al. 2007). As pointed out in Section 5.2.2, collings et al. (2004) find experimental evidence that the desorption of NH3 from grain mantles takes place at a temperature of ~120 K. Therefore, since in our model we assumed a maximum temperatrue of 70 K, the high NH3/N2H+ abundance ratio in the central core is mainly a consequence of the destruction of N2H+ by CO rather than an enhancement of NH3 in the gas phase.
    • The high temperature reached in the central core due to the presence of hot cores seems to affect significantly the NH3/N2H+ abundance ratio, indicating that the NH3/N2H+ ratio behaves differently than in low-mass star-forming regions.
  3. Emprechtinger, M., Caselli, P., Volgenau, N. H., Stutzki, J., and Wiedner, M. C. 2009, A&A, 493, 89, "The N2D+/!N2H+ ratio as an evolutionary tracer of Class 0 protostars"
    • Interesting analysis of N2D+/!N2H+ ratio in Class 0, Class 0/I and Class I sources.
    • Find that ratio:
      • Decreases with increasing temperature, an indication of protostellar evolution.
      • Increases with increasing CO depletion factor.
    • Most other D/H ratio measurements from other molecules do not show this clear dependence on evolutionary state.
  4. Hirota, T., Ikeda, M., and Yamamoto, S. 2003 preprint. "Mapping Observations of DNC and HN13C in Dark Cloud Cores"
    • Measured TMC1, L1512, L1544, and L63.
    • DNC/!HN13C distribution similar to N2H+.
    • H13CO+ distribution more extended thatn HN13C.
  5. Crapsi, A., Caselli, P., Walmsley, C. M., Myers, P. C., Tafalla, M., Lee, C. W., & Bourke, T. L. 2005, ApJ, 619, 379 "Probing the Evolutionary Status of Starless Cores Through N2H+ and N2D+ Observations"
  6. Bisschop, S. E., Fraser, H. J., Oberg, K. I., van Dischoek, E. F., and Schlemmer, S. 2006, A&A, Desorption Rates and Sticking Coefficients for CO and N2 Interstellar Ices. NOTE: More general than just for N2H+ excitation. May rule-out one of the scenarios which could explain disappearance of N2H+ in core of 04191.
  7. Daniel, F., Cernicharo, J., & Dubernet, M.-L. 2006, ApJ, 648, 461 "The Excitation of N2H+ in Interstellar Molecular Clouds. I. Models". Nice analysis of hyperfine structure overlap and effects on LVG models.
  8. Daniel, F., Cernicharo, J., Roueff, E., Gerin, M., & Dubernet, M.-L. 2007, ApJ, 667, 980 "The Excitation of N2H+ in Interstellar Molecular Clouds. II. Observations". Second part in this series. Nice analysis of hyperfine structure overlap and effects on LVG models. Includes appendices which describe the N2D+ radiative transfer models used, including rate coefficient calculations.


2012/12/26: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Elitzur, M. 1982, Rev. Mod. Phys., 54, 1225-1260 "Physical Characteristics of Astronomical Masers"
  2. Thompson, R. I. 1984, ApJ, 283, 165-168 "Lyman and Balmer Continuum Ionization in Zero-Age Main-Sequence Stars: Applications to the Line Excess Phenomenon"
  3. Anthony-Twarog, B. J. 1982, AJ, 87, 1213 "The Hbeta Distance Scale for B Stars: The Orion Association"
  4. Van Vleck, J. H. & Weisskopf, V. F. 1945, Rev. Mod. Phys., 17, 227 "On the Shape of Collision-Broadened Lines"



2012/12/25: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Acke, B. etal., 2012, A&A, 540, A125, "Herschel Images of Fomalhaut: An Extrasolar Kuiper Belt at the Height of its Dynamical Activity"
  2. Fressin, F. etal., 2012, Nature, 482, 195, "Two Earth-Sized Planets Orbiting Kepler-20"
  3. Batalha, N. M. etal., 2011, ApJ, 729, 27, "Kepler's First Rocky Planet: Kepler-10b"
  4. Lissauer, J. J. etal., 2011, Nature, 470, 53, "A closely packed system of low-mass, low-density planets transiting Kepler-11"
  5. Janson, M., Bergfors, C., Goto, M., Brandner, W., and LaFreniere, D., 2010, ApJ, 710, L35, "Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of the Exoplanet HR 8799 c"
    • Cool! Spatially resolved exoplanet in NIR.


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  1. Greve, A., Thum, C., Moreno, R., and Yan, N. 2009, A&A, 495, 639, "The brightness temperature of Mercury at mm-wavelengths"
    • Very nice analysis of Mercury black body emission properties.
    • Analysis of use of Mercury as a millimeter calibrator source indicates +-15% accuracy at 90 GHz when using the equations they derive to account for the phase effect.


2012/12/25: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Lellouch, E., Sicardy, B., de Bergh, C., Kaufl, H.-U., Kassi, S., and Campargue, A. 2009, A&A, 495, L17, "Pluto's lower atmosphere structure and methane abundance from high-resolution spectroscopy and stellar occultations"
  2. Stern, S. A. 1992, ARAA, 30, 185-233 "The Pluto-Charon System"
  3. Jewitt, D. C. 1994, AJ, 107, 372-378 "Heat from Pluto"
  4. Altenhoff, W. J., Chini, R., Hein, H., Kreysa, E., Mezger, P. G., Salter, C., & Schraml, J. B., 1988, A&A, 190, L15-L17 "First Radio Astronomical Estimate of the Temperature of Pluto"
  5. Albrecht, R., Barbieri, C., Adorf, H.-M., Corrain, G., Gemmo, A., Greenfield, P., Hainaut, O., Hook, R. N., Tholen, D. J., Blades, J. C., & Sparks, W. B. 1994, ApJ, 435, L75-L78 "High-Resolution Imaging of the Pluto-Charon System with the Faint Object Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope"
  6. Standish, E. M. 1994, Icarus, 108, 180-185 "Improved Ephemeris of Pluto"
  7. Young, E. F. & Binzel, R. P. 1994, Icarus, 108, 219-224 "A New Determination of Radii and Limb Parameters for Pluto and Charon from Mutual Event Lightcurves"
  8. Reinsch, K., Burwitz, V., and Festou, M. C. 1994, Icarus, 108, 209-218 "Albedo Maps of Pluto and Improved Physical Parameters of the Pluto-Charon System"


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  1. Courtin, R. etal. 2011, A&A, 536, L2, "First Results of Herschel-SPIRE Observations of Titan"
    • Contains reference to Titan radiative transfer model.

Ring Molecules


Don't bother copying to Zotero.

  1. Thaddeus, Vrtilek, & Gottlieb 1985, ApJL, 299, L63
  2. Gomez-Gonzalez, J., Guelin, M., Cernicharo, J., Kahane, C., & Bogey, M. 1986, A&A, 168, L11 "Detection of Interstellar 13C Isotopes of C3H2"
  3. Bogey & Destombes 1986, A&AL, 159, L8 "Millimeter Wave Spectrum of 13C Substitutions of Cyclopropenylidene C3H2"
  4. Matthews, H. E., Madden, S. C., Avery, L. W., & Irvine, W. M. 1986, ApJL, 307, L69 "The C3H2 2(20)-2(11) Transition: Absorption in Cold Dark Clouds"
  5. Madden, S. C., Irvine, W. M., & Matthews, H. E. 1986, ApJ, 311, L27 "Detections of 13C-Substituted C3H2 in Astronomical Sources"
  6. Green, S., DeFrees, D. J., & McLean, A. D. 1987, ApJS, 65, 175 "Collisional Excitation of Interstellar Cyclopropenylidene"
  7. Vrtilek, J. M., Gottlieb, C. A., & Thaddeus, P. 1987, ApJ, 314, 716 "Laboratory and Astronomical Spectroscopy of C3H2, The First Interstellar Organic Ring"
  8. Gerin, M., Wootten, H. A., Combes, F., Boulanger, F., Peters, W. L. II, Kuiper, T. B. H., Encrenaz, P. J., & Bogey, M. 1987, A&A, 173, L1 "Deuterated C3H2 as a Clue to Deterium Chemistry"
  9. Adams, N. G. & Smith, D. 1987, ApJ, 317, L25 "On the Synthesis of c-C3H2 in Interstellar Clouds"
  10. Cox, P., Walmsley, C. M., & Guesten, R. 1989, A&A, 209, 382 "C3H2 Observations in Dense Dark Clouds"
  11. Madden, S. C., Irvine, W. M., Matthews, H. E., Friberg, P., & Swade, D. A. 1989, AJ, 97, 1403 "A Survey of Cyclopropenylidene (C3H2) in Galactic Sources"
  12. Bell, M. B., Feldman, P. A., Matthews, H. E., & Avery, L. A., preprint "Detection of Deuterated Cyclopropenylidene (C3HD) in TMC-1"
  13. Matthews & Irvine, ApJL, 298, L61


Don't bother copying to Zotero.

  1. Yamamoto, S., Saito, S., Ohishi, M., Suzuki, H., Ishikawa, S.-I., Kaifu, N., & Murakami, A. 1987, ApJL, 322, L55 "Laboratory and Astronomical Detection of the Cyclic C3H Radical"
  2. Mangum, J. G. & Wootten, A. 1990, A&A, 239, 319 "Observations of the Cyclic C3H Radical in the Interstellar Medium"

Supernova Remnants

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  1. Reach, W. T., Rho, J., Jarrett, T. H., & Lagage, P.-O. 2002, ApJ, 564, 302-316 "Molecular and Ionic Shocks in the Supernova Remnant 3C391"
  2. Reach, W. T. & Rho, J. 1998, ApJ, 507, L93-L97 "Detection of Far-Infrared Water Vapor, Hydroxyl, and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from the Supernova Remnant 3C 391"
  3. Huang, Y.-L. & Thaddeus, P. 1986, ApJ, 309, 804-821 "Molecular Clouds and Supernova Remnants in the Outer Galaxy"
  4. Junkes, N., Fuerst, E., & Reich, W. 1992, A&A, 261, 289-300 "G54.4-0.3: CO Shell and Star Formation Region Surrounding a Shell-Type Supernova Remnant. II - Compact CO Clouds and the Star Formation Scenario"
  5. Wilner, D. J., Reynolds, S. P., & Moffett, D. A. 1998, AJ, 115, 247 "CO Observations Toward the Supernova Remnant 3C 391"
  6. Green, A. J., Frail, D. A., Goss, W. M., & Otrupcek, R. 1997, AJ, 114, 2058 "Continuation of a Survey of OH (1720 MHz) Maser Emission Towards Supernova Remnants"

Young Stellar Objects

General YSO

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  1. Ratajczak, A., Taquet, V., Kahane, C., Ceccarelli, C., Faure, A., and Quirico, E. 2011, A&A, 528, L13, "The Puzzling Deuteration of Methanol in Low- to High-Mass Protostars"
  2. Codella, C., Benedettini, M., Beltran, M. T., Gueth, F., Viti, S., Bachiller, R., Tafalla, M., Cabrit, S., Fuente, A., and Lefloch, B. 2009, A&A, 507, L25, "Methyl Cyanide as a Tracer of Bow Shocks in L1157-B1"
  3. Schuller, F. etal. 2009, A&A, 504, 415, "ATLASGAL - The APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy at 870 μm"
  4. Evans, N. J. II, etal. 2009, ApJS, 181, 321, "The Spitzer c2d Legacy Results: Star-Formation Rates and Efficiencies; Evolution and Lifetimes"
    • The reference for a complete and up-to-date understanding of the star formation process.
    • Spitzer key programme study of Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon.
    • After careful background galaxy removal, estimate that their YSO sample is complete to 90% down to a luminosity integrated from 1 to 30 micron of 0.05 Lsolar and 50% complete down to 0.01 Lsolar for their most distant cloud (Serpens at 260 pc).
    • Total of 1024 YSOs in their final sampl, which is an order-of-magnitude increase over previous samples.
    • For distinguishing Class 0 from Class I, find that Lbol/Lsubmm may be a better distinguisher than Tbol. This is likely due to the fact that acretion onto the YSO is not steady (appears to be episodic).
    • Note that early estimates of the Class 0 lifetime (about 0.01 Myr), based on a small number of Class 0s in Oph, are too small by a factor of 50. More like 0.16 Myr.
    • Best estimate for the Class II lifetime is 2+-1 Myr (though this should probably be viewed as a half-life rather than an actual lifetime for all Class II objects).
    • Minimum mean density of prestellar cores is about 2X10^4 cm^(-3), which suggests a lifetime of about 0.5+-0.1(+-0.3) Myr, where the uncertainty in parentheses includes the range over different clouds.
    • The distribution of sources are broadly consistent with a picture in which most stars form in clusters or groups and disperse at a rate reflecting the cloud turbulence.
    • Suggest some solar system formation scenarios based on this study.
    • For Serpens, which is the most centrally-condensed cluster:
      • NH3 emission lines suggest low turbulence.
      • 13CO 1-0 emission lines suggest high turbulence (largest line widths of the sample).
    • Collisions of dense cores, at the stage that they observe them, are not dominant.
  5. Enoch, M. L., Evans, N. J. II, Sargent, A. I., and Glenn, J. 2009, ApJ, 692, 973, "Properties of the Youngest Protostars in Perseus, Serpens, and Ophiuchus"
    • Very nice comparison.
    • Appendix dictating Lbol and Tbol calculations.
    • Suggest that there is episodic accretion in Class I.
  6. Eisner, J. A., Monnier, J. D., Tuthill, P., and Lacour, S. 2009, ApJ, 698, L169, "Spatially Resolved Mid-Infrared Imaging of the SR 21 Transition Disk"
  7. Goodman, A. A., Pineda, J. E., and Schnee, S. L. 2009, ApJ, 692, 91, "The 'True' Column Density Distribution in Star-Forming Molecular Clouds"
  8. Caselli, P. etal. 2008, A&A, 492, 703, "Survey of Ortho-H2D+ 1(1,0)-1(1,1) in Dense Cloud Cores"
  9. Pandian, J. D., Leurini, S., Menten, K. M., Belloche, A., and Goldsmith, P. F. 2008, A&A, 489, 1175 "Detection of 6.7 GHz Methanol Absorption Towards Hot Corinos"
    • Absorption tracing low-density material.
  10. Girart, J. M., Rao, R., and Estalella, R. 2008, ApJ, in press "The L723 Low Mass Star Forming Protostellar System: Resolving a Double Core"
  11. Young, K. E., Lee, J.-E., Evans, N. J. II, Goldsmith, P. F., & Doty, S. D. 2004, ApJ, 614, 252 "Probing Pre-Stellar Cores with Formaldehyde"
  12. Monnier, J. D. & Millan-Gabet 2002, ApJ, in press "On the Interferometric Sizes of Young Stellar Objects"
  13. Lee, C.-F., Mundy, L. G., Stone, J. M., & Ostriker, E. C. 2002, ApJ, 576, 294 "CO Outflows from Young Stellar Objects"
  14. Mueller, K. E., Shirley, Y. L., Evans, N. J. II, & Jacobson, H. R. 2002, ApJS, 143, 469 "The Physical Conditions for Massive Star Formation: Dust Continuum Maps and Modeling"
  15. Shirley, Y. L., Evans, N. J. II, & Rawlings, J. M. C. 2002, ApJ, 575, 337 "Tracing the Mass During Low-Mass Star Formation. III. Models of the Submillimeter Dust Continuum Emission from Class 0 Protostars"
  16. Young, C. H., Shirley, Y. L., Evans, N. J. II, & Rawlings, J. M. C. 2002, ApJS, 145, 111 "Tracing the Mass During Low-Mass Star Formation. IV. Observations and Modeling of the Submillimeter Continuum Emission from Class I Protostars"
  17. Lee, C.-F., Ho, P. T. P., & White, S. 2005, ApJ 619, 948. "Molecular Line Observations of IRAM 04191-1522"
  18. Lee, J.-E., Bergin, E. A., & Evans, N. J. II, 2005, astroph 0408091 "Evolution of Chemistry and Molecular Line Profile During Protostellar Collapse"
  19. Andrews, S. M. & Williams, J. P. 2004, ApJ, 619, L175-L178 "Submillimeter Array Observations of Disks in the SR 24 Multiple Star System"
  20. Rodríguez, L. F., Loinard L., D'Alessio, P., Wilner, D. J., & Ho, P. T. P. 2005, ApJ, 621, L133-L136 "IRAS 16293-2422B: A Compact, Possibly Isolated Protoplanetary Disk in a Class 0 Object"
  21. Stark, R. 2004, ApJ, 608, 341-364 "Probing the Early Stages of Low-Mass Star Formation in LDN1689N: Dust and Water in IRAS 16293-2422A, B, and E"
  22. Belloche, A. & Andre, P. 2004, A&A, 419, L35-L38 "Disappearance of N2H+ from the Gas Phase in the Class 0 Protostar IRAM04191"
  23. Schoier, F. L., Jorgensen, J. K., van Dishoeck, E. F., & Blake, G. A. 2004, A&A, 418, 185-202 "On the Origin of H2CO Abundance Enhancements in Low-Mass Protostars"
  24. Tafalla, M., Myers, P. C., Caselli, P., & Walmsley, C. M. 2004, A&A, 416, 191-212 "On the Internal Structure of Starless Cores. I. Physical Conditions and the Distribution of CO, CS, N2H+, and NH3 in L1498 and L1517B"
  25. Maret, S. 2004, A&A, 416, 577-594 "The H2CO Abundance in the Inner Warm Regions of Low Mass Protostellar Envelopes"
  26. Cabrit, S. & Bertout, C. 1992, A&A, 261, 274-284 "CO Line Formation in Bipolar Outflows: III. The Energetics of Molecular Flows and Ionized Winds"
  27. Testi, L., Natta, A., Oliva, E., D'Antona, F., Comeron, F., Baffa, C., Comoretto, G., & Gennari, S. 2002, ApJ, 571, L155-L159 "A Young Very Low Mass Object Surrounded by Warm Dust"
  28. Kamazaki, T., Saito, M., Hirano, N., Umemoto, T., & Kawabe, R. 2003, ApJ, 584, 357-367 "Molecular Outflow Search in the Rho Ophiuchi A and B2 Regions"
  29. Shirley, Y. L., Evans, N. J. II, & Rawlings, J. M. C. 2002, ApJ, 575, 337-353 "Tracing the Mass During Low-Mass Star Formation. III. Models of the Submillimeter Dust Continuum Emission from Class 0 Protostars"
  30. Young, C. H., Shirley, Y. L., Evans, N. J. II, & Rawlings, J. M. C. 2002, ApJS, 145, 111-145 "Tracing the Mass during Low-Mass Star Formation. IV. Observations and Modeling of the Submillimeter Continuum Emission from Class I Protostars"
  31. Harvey, D. W. A., Wilner, D. J., Myers, P. C., & Tafalla, M. 2003, ApJ, 597, 424-433 "Inner Structure of Starless Core L694-2 Derived from Millimeter-Wave Interferometry"
  32. Montmerle, T., Grosso, N., Tsuboi, Y., & Katsuji, K. 2000, ApJ, 532, 1097-1110 "Rotation and X-Ray Emission from Protostars"
  33. Visser, A. E., Richer, J. S., & Chandler, C. J. 2002, AJ, 124, 2756-2789 "Completion of a SCUBA Survey of Lynds Dark Clouds and Implications for Low-mass Star Formation"
  34. Bacmann, A., André, P., Puget, J.-L., Abergel, A., Bontemps, S., & Ward-Thompson, D. 2000, A&A, 361, 555-580 "An ISOCAM Absorption Survey of the Structure of Pre-Stellar Cloud Cores"
  35. Ward-Thompson, D., Motte, F., & Andre, P. 1999, MNRAS, 305, 143-150 "The Initial Conditions of Isolated Star Formation - III. Millimetre Continuum Mapping of Pre-Stellar Cores"
  36. Bontemps, S., Andre, P., Terebey, S., & Cabrit, S. 1996, A&A, 311, 858-872 "Evolution of Outflow Activity Around Low-Mass Embedded Young Stellar Objects"
    • NOTE: Details of transition from Class 0 to Class I.
    • NOTE: Decrease of outflow activity with age observed.
  37. Andre, P., Ward-Thompson, D., & Motte, F. 1996, A&A, 314, 625-635 "Probing the Initial Conditions of Star Formation: The Structure of the Prestellar Core L1689B"
    • NOTE: Very good discussion of models.
  38. Saraceno, P., Andre, P., Ceccarelli, C., Griffin, M., & Molinari, S. 1996, A&A, 309, 827-839 "An Evolutionary Diagram for Young Stellar Objects"
  39. Ward-Thompson, D., Scott, P. F., Hills, R. E., & Andre, P. 1994, MNRAS, 268, 276 "A Submillimetre Continuum Survey of Pre Protostellar Cores"
  40. Wilner, D. J., Myers, P. C., Mardones, D., & Tafalla, M. 2000, ApJ, 544, L69-L73 "Small-Scale Structure of the Protostellar Collapse Candidate B335 Imaged in CS J=5-4 Emission"
    • NOTE: No infall signature in B335
  41. Whitworth, A. P. & Ward-Thompson, D. 2001, ApJ, 547, 317-322 "An Empirical Model for Protostellar Collapse"
  42. Myers, P. C. 2005, ApJ, 623, 280-290 "Centrally Condensed Collapse of Starless Cores"
  43. Huang, H.-C., Kuan, Y.-J., Charnley, S. B., Hirano, N., Takakuwa, S., Bourke, T. L., to be published in Advances in Space Research Organic Molecules in the Hot Corinos and Circumstellar Disks of IRAS 16293-2422"
  44. Evans, N. J., II 1991, in "Frontiers of Stellar Evolution" (A92-51676 22-90). San Francisco, CA, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1991, p. 45-95 "Star formation - Observations"
  45. Ward-Thompson, D. 1994, in "Clouds, Cores, and Low Mass Stars", Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, volume 65; Proceedings of the 4th Haystack Observatory Conference; Haystack Observatory; Westford; Massachusetts; 18-20 May; 1994; San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP); copyright 1994; edited by Dan P. Clemens and Richard Barvainis, p.207 "First Submm Continuum Maps of Pre-Protostellar Cores"
  46. Various Authors, "Clouds, Cores, and Low Mass Stars", Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, volume 65; Proceedings of the 4th Haystack Observatory Conference; Haystack Observatory; Westford; Massachusetts; 18-20 May; 1994; San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP); copyright 1994; edited by Dan P. Clemens and Richard Barvainis, p.207
  47. Evans, N. J., II, 1999, ARAA, 37, 311-362 "Physical Conditions in Regions of Star Formation"
  48. Bachiller, R. 1996, ARAA, 34, 111-154 "Bipolar Molecular Outflows from Young Stars and Protostars"
  49. Genzel, R. 1991, in "The Physics of Star Formation and Early Stellar Evolution", pp 155-219, ed. C. J. Lada and N. D. Kylafis (Kluwer) "Physical Conditions and Heating/Cooling Processes in High Mass Star Formation Regions"
  50. Young, C. H. and Evans, N. J. II 2005, ApJ, 627, 293 "Evolutionary Signatures in the Formation of Low-Mass Protostars"
  51. De Vries, C. H. and Myers, P. C. 2005, ApJ, 620, 800 "Molecular Line Profile Fitting with Analytic Radiative Transfer Models"
  52. Maret, S., Ceccarelli, C., Caux, E., Tielens, A. G. G. M., Jorgensen, J. K., van Dishoeck, E., Bacmann, A., Castets, A., Befloch, B., Loinard, L., Parise, B., and Schoier, F. L. 2004, A&A, 416, 577 "The H2CO Abundance in the Inner Warm Regions of Low Mass Protostellar Envelopes"
  53. Lahuis, F., etal. ApJ, 636, L145 Hot Organic Molecules Toward a Young Low-Mass Star: A Look at Inner Disk Chemistry
  54. Swift, J. J., Welch, W. J., Di Francesco, J., and Stojimirovic, I. 2006, ApJ, 637, 392 A Pre-Protostellar Core in L1551. II. State of Dynamical and Chemical Evolution
  55. Hill, T., Thompson, M. A., Burton, M. G., Walsh, A. J., Minier, A. J., Cunningham, M. R., and Pierce-Price, D. 2006, MNRAS, in press Millimetre Continuum Observations of Southern Massive Star Formation Regions II. SCUBA Observations of Cold Cores and the Dust Grain Emissivity Index $\beta$
    • Good survey of southern sources.
  56. Lee etal. 2006, ApJ, 648, 491 The Spitzer c2d Survey of Nearby Dense Cores: III: Low Mass Star Formation in a Small Group, L1251B
    • Two sites of star formation (L1251E and L1251B).
    • Low-mass protocluster.
  57. Doty, S. D., van Dishoeck, E. F., and Tan, J. C. 2006, A&A, Astrophysical Confirmation of the Rapid Evolution of Massive YSOs and Explanation for the Inferred Ages of Hot Cores
    • Hot core evolutionary model.
  58. Kirk, J. M., Ward-Thompson, D., and Andre, P. 2006, MNRAS, 360, 1506 The Initial Conditions of Isolated Star Formation - VI. SCUBA Mapping of Prestellar Cores
    • 850 micron survey of pre-protostars in Taurus and Ophiuchus.
  59. Shirley, Y. L., Nordhaus, M. K., Grcevich, J. M., Evans, N. J. II, Rawlings, J. M. C., and Tatematsu, K. 2005, ApJ, 632, 982 Modeling the Physical Structure of the Low Density Pre-Protostellar Core Lynds 1498
    • Nice appendix on N2H+ 1-0 hyperfine structure.
  60. Young etal. 2006, ApJ, 132, 1998 Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array Mapping of Spitzer c2d Small Clouds and Cores
  61. Pillai, T., Wyrowski, F., Hatchell, J., Gibb, A. G., and Thompson, M. A. 2007, A&A, in press "Probing the Initial Conditions of High Mass Star Formation - I. Deuteration and Depletion in High Mass Pre/Protocluster Clumps"
  62. Brooke, T. Y. etal, 2007, ApJ, 655, 364 "The Spitzer c2d Survey of Nearby Dense Cores. IV. Revealing the Embedded Cluster in B59"
  63. Cyganowski, C. J., Brogan, C. L., and Hunter, T. R. 2007, AJ, 134, 346 "Evidence for a Massive Protocluster in S255N"
  64. Crapsi, A., Caselli, P., Walmsley, M. C., and Tafalla, M. 2007, A&A, 470, 221 "Observing the Gas Temperature Drop in the High-Density Nucleus of L1544"
    • Find that VLA NH3(2,2) emission is more resolved-out than VLA NH3(1,1), indicating that the kinetic temperature of the more extended (presumably lower density) material in the L1544 core is higher than in the compact nucleus.
    • PdBI CO 2-1 and 1mm and 3mm continuum measurements detecting no emission, suggesting that the emission was resolved-out.
    • Find kinetic temperature gradient running from 6 K in the core to 11 K in the more extended (outer) regions.
    • See no freeze-out of NH3 or NH2D up to densities greater than 10^6 cm^(-3).
    • Derive a more peaked density structure (due to the lower Tk in the core) with a factor-of-two larger central density than that derived in the past.
  65. Jorgensen, J. etal. 2007, ApJ, 659, 479 "PROSAC: A Submillimeter Array Survey of Low-Mass Protostars I. Overview of Program: Envelopes, Disks, Outflows, and Hot Cores"
    • Compact continuum emission detected from disk regions in all sources.
    • Lower limits to disk masses typically 0.1 Msolar.
    • Inverse P Cygni profiles indicative of infall observed in 13CO 2-1 toward IRAS4A and 4B.
    • Outflows detected in all sources with most having opening angles <~ 60 deg. Consistent with the notion that outflow opening angle increases with age.
    • Most diffuse outflows found toward objects with the lowest ratios of disk to envelope mass.
    • Shocks detected on all scales, suggesting that shocks are the explanation for what has been described elsewhere as the "hot corino" phenomena.
  66. Motte, F., Bontemps, S., Schilke, P., Schneider, N., Menten, K. M., and Broguiere, D. 2007, A&A, 476, 1243, "The Earliest Phases of High-Mass Star Formation: A 3 Square Degree Millimeter Continuum Mapping of Cygnus X"
    • BIG MAMBO survey of 1.2mm dust in Cygnus X.
    • Estimate a lifetime for massive YSOs of 3X10^4 years, which is one order-of-magnitude smaller than low mass YSOs.
    • Failed to detect massive analog of low-mass prestellar objects. This suggests that the lifetime of high-mass prestellar objects is < 10^3 years.
  67. Zapata, L. A., Palau, A., Ho, P. T. P., Schilke, P., Garrod, R. T., Rodriguez, L. F., and Menten, K. 2008, A&A, 479, L25, "Forming an Early O-Type Star Through Gas Accretion?"
    • Observe "P-Cygni" profile emission/absorption in CN toward W51 North. Interpret this as due to infall onto a massive star.
  68. Pontoppidan, K. M., Boogert, A. C. A., Fraser, H. J., van Dishoeck, E. F., Blake, G. A., Lahuis, F., Oberg, K. I., Evans, N. J. II, and Salyk, C. 2008, ApJ, 678, 1005, "The c2d Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of Ices Around Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects. II. CO2"
    • Measure the CO2 15.2 micron bending mode toward 50 embedded YSOs, taken mainly from the c2d survey.
    • Measure average solid CO2:H2O = 0.32+-0.02 in low-mass YSOs, significantly higher than that found in quiescent molecular clouds and massive star formation regions.
    • The formation of pure CO2 via segregation from the H2O-rich dust mantles in these regions appears to require relatively high kinetic temperatures (>~ 50 K) in these regions.
  69. Oberg, K. I., Boogert, A. C. A., Pontoppidan, K. M., Blake, G. A., Evans, N. J. II, Lahuis, F., and van Dishoeck, E. F. 2008, ApJ, 678, 1032, "The c2d Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of Ices Around Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects. III. CH4"
    • Measure the CH4 7.7 micron bending mode toward 52 embedded YSOs, taken mainly from the c2d survey.
    • Find that the inferred solid CH4 abundances are consistent with models where CH4 is formed through sequential hydrogenation of C on grain surfaces.
    • The equal or higher abundances of CH4 toward low-mass YSOs compared with high-mass objects and the correlation studies support the sequential hydrogenation of C on grain surfaces as the CH4 formation pathway, but not the two competing theories: formation from CH3OH and formation in gas phase with subsequent freezeout.


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  1. Duarte-Cabral, A., Dobbs, C. L., Peretto, N., and Fuller, G. A. 2011, A&A, 528, A50, "Was a Cloud-Cloud Collision the Trigger of the Recent Star Formation in Serpens?"
  2. van Kempen, T. A., Wilner, D., and Gurwell, M. 2009, ApJ, 706, L22, "183 GHz H2O Maser Emission Around the Low-Mass Protostar Serpens SMM1"
  3. Eiroa, C., Djupvik, A. A., and Casali, M. M. 2008, Handbook of Star Forming Regions, Vol. II, p. 1, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Reipurth ed., "The Serpens Molecular Cloud"
    • Excellent general overview of Serpens with what appears to me to be a complete listing of the observed properties of the Serpens molecular cloud.
  4. Wolf-Chase, G. A., Barsony, M., Wootten, H. A., Ward-Thompson, D., Lowrance, P. J., Kastner, J. H., & McMullin, J. P. 1998, ApJ, 501, L193-L198 "The Protostellar Origin of a CS Outflow in S68N"
  5. Hogerheijde, M. R., van Dishoeck, E. F., Salverda, J. M., and Blake, G. A. 1999, ApJ, 513, 350-369 "Envelope Structure of Deeply Embedded Young Stellar Objects in the Serpens Molecular Cloud"
  6. Davis, C. J., Matthews, H. E., Ray, T. P., Dent, W. R. F., and Richer, J. S. 1999, MNRAS, 309, 141-152 "A Burst of Outflows from the Serpens Cloud Core: Wide-Field Submillimetre Continuum, CO J=2-1 and Optical Observations"
  7. McMullin, J. P., Mundy, L. G., Blake, G. A., Wilking, B. A., Mangum, J. G., and Latter, W. B. 2000, ApJ, 536, 845-856 "A Spectral Line Study of Serpens S68 FIRS1 Region"
  8. Testi, L. & Sargent, A. I. 2000, ApJ, 508, L91-L94 "Star Formation in Clusters: A Survey of Compact Millimeter-Wave Sources in the Serpens Core"
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  10. Eiroa, C., Torrelles, J. M., Curiel, S., & Djupvik, A. A. 2005, astro-ph/0506054 (2 Jun 2005)


2012/12/27: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Hatchell, J., Richer, J. S., Fuller, G. A., Qualtrough, C. J., Ladd, E. F., & Chandler, C. J. 2005, A&A. "Star Formation in Perseus: Clusters, Filaments, and the Conditions for Star Formation"
  2. O'Linger, J. C., Cole, D. M., Ressler, M. E., and Wolf-Chase, G. 2006, A Mid-Infrared Study of the Class 0 Cluster in LDN 1448
  3. Kwon, W., Looney, L. W., Crutcher, R. M., and Kirk, J. M. 2006, ApJ, 653, 1358, "Two Bipolar Outflows and Magnetic Fields in the Multiple Protostellar System L1448 IRS 3"
  4. Jorgensen, J. K., Johnstone, D., Kirk, H., and Myers, P. C. 2007, ApJ, 656, 293-305, "Current Star Formation in the Perseus Molecular Cloud: Constraints from Unbiased Submillimeter and Mid-Infrared Surveys". Nice analysis of current star formation episode in Perseus. Analysis of "core concentration factor". Note that YSOs do not seem to travel a substantial distance during their main accretion phase.


2012/12/27: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Young etal 2006, astro-ph/0602259, "Bolocam Survey for 1.1 mm Dust Continuum Emission in the c2d Legacy Clouds. II. Ophiuchus
    • Bolocam (1.1mm) and Spitzer study of cores in Oph.
  2. Patience, J., Akeson, R. L., and Jensen, E. L. N. 2008, ApJ, 677, 616, "The Evolution of Circumstellar Disks in Ophiuchus Binaries"
    • Measured dust and CO in IRS43, L1689SNO2, SR24, and Elias 30 with OVRO.
    • Detect CO 1-0 in SR24 (recall that Andrews and Williams did not detect CO emission in this object).
    • Find that only primary is detected in dust, which is different from what is detected from younger protostellar binaries. This suggests that binary evolution diminishes the mass of secondary protostellar disks.


2012/12/27: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Rebull, L. M. etal. 2010, ApJS, 186, 259, "The Taurus Spitzer Survey: New Candidate Taurus Members Selected Using Sensitive Mid-Infrared Photomotry"
    • The IR survey of Taurus.

Circumstellar Disks

2012/12/27: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Salyk, C., Blake, G. A., Boogert, A. C. A., and Brown, J. A. 2009, ApJ, 699, 330, "High Resolution 5 micron Spectroscopy of Transitional Disks"
  2. Andrews, S. M. and Williams, J. P. 2007, ApJ, 659, 705-728 "High-Resolution Submillimeter Constraints on Circumstellar Disk Structure"

Protoplanetary Disks

2012/12/27: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Wyatt, M. C., Greaves, J. S., Dent, W. R. F., and Coulson, I. M. 2005, ApJ, 620, 492-500 "Submillimeter Images of a Dusty Kuiper Belt Around Eta Corvi"
  2. Salyk, C., Pontoppidan, K. M., Blake, G. A., Lahuis, F., van Dishoeck, E. F., and Evans, N. J. II, 2008, ApJ, 676, L49 H2O and OH Gas in the Terrestrial Planet-forming Zones of Protoplanetary Disks
    • Very interesting measurements of CO, H2O, and OH vibrational emission from the inner (few AU) regions of AS205A and DR Tau.
    • Find regions with T >~ 500 K and N >~ 10^(17) cm^(-2) in these inner disk environs.


2012/12/27: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Bourke, T. L., Myers, P. C., Evans, N. J. II, Dunham, M. M., Kauffmann, J., Shirley, Y. L., Crapsi, A., Young, C. H., Huard, T. L., Brooke, T. Y., Chapman, N., Cieza, L., Lee, C. W., Teuben, P., and Wahhaj, Z. 2006, ApJ, 649, L37-L40 "The Spitzer c2d Survey of Nearby Dense Cores. II. Discovery of a Low-Luminosity Object in the 'Evolved Starless Core' L1521F"
  2. Dunham, M. M., Evans, N. J. II, Bourke, T. L., Dullemond, C. P., Young, C. H., Brooke, T. Y., Chapman, N., Myers, P. C., Porras, A., Spiesman, W., Teuben, P. J., and Wahhaj, Z. 2006, ApJ, in press "The Spitzer c2d Survey of Nearby Dense Cores: I. First Direct Detection of the Embedded Source in IRAM04191+1522"

Brown Dwarfs

2012/12/27: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Phan-Bao, N., Lee, C.-F., Ho, P. T. P., and Tang, Y.-W., 2011, ApJ, 735, 14 "Molecular Outflows in the Substellar Domain: Millimeter Observations of Young Very Low Mass Objects in Taurus and ρ Ophiuchi"
    • Outflows from BDs.
    • Supports theory that BD formation is just scaled-down version of low-mass star formation.
    • Interesting if true (detection is a bit marginal).


2012/12/27: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Overholt, A. C., Melott, A. L., and Pohl, M. 2009, ApJ, 705, L101, "Testing the Link Between Terrestrial Climate Change and Galactic Spiral Arm Transit"
    • Find that a better model of the spiral arms in the Milky Way removes a previously-found correlation between ice ages and transit of the solar system across spiral arms.

Technical References


2012/12/27: Copied to Zotero, but still will need to keep these as many are not online...

  1. Gazis, P. R., Levit, C., and Way, M. J. 2010, PASP, 122, 1518, "Viewpoints: A High-Performance High-Dimensional Exploratory Data Analysis Tool"
  2. Andrae, R. 2010, "Error Estimation in Astronomy: A Guide"
    • Excellent overview.
  3. Madore, B. 2010, AJ, 139, 2052, "Sigma One"
  4. Maret, S., Hily-Blant, P., Pety, J., Bardeau, S., Reynier, E. 2011, A&A, 526, A47, "Weeds: a CLASS extension for the analysis of millimeter and sub-millimeter spectral surveys"
  5. Thompson, A. R. & Emerson, D. T. 2005, EVLA Memo 88. "Quantization Noise"
  6. Unknown. "Patterns of Large Circular Apertures with Uniform Illumination", in "Reflector Antennas and their Feed Systems"
  7. Johnson and Jasik "Reflector Antennas", in "Antenna Engineering Handbook"
  8. Ruze, J. 1964, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, p. 660 "Lateral-Feed Displacement in a Paraboloid"
  9. Ruze, J. 1969, MIT Preprint "Small Displacements in Parabolic Reflectors"
  10. Greve, A., and Morris, D. 2005, IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation. "Repetitive Radio Reflector Surface Deformations"
  11. Greve, A., Bremer, M., Penalver, J., Raffin, P., and Morris, D. 2005, IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, 53, 851-860 "Improvement of the IRAM 30m Telescope from Temperature Measurements and Finite-Element Calculations"
  12. Butler, B. J. 2003, ALMA Memo 479 "Requirements for Subreflector and Feed Positioning for ALMA Antennas"
  13. Gorham, P. W. & Rochblatt, D. J. 1997, TDA Progress Report 42-132, 1-19 "Effect of Antenna-Pointing Errors on Phase Stability and Interferometric Delay"
  14. Papoular, R. 1983, A&A, 117, 46-52 "The Processing of Infrared Sky Noise by Chopping, Nodding and Filtering"
  15. Watson, F.(R.?) G. 1978, MNRAS, 183, 277-284 "The Zenithal Blind Spot of a Computer-Controlled Altazimuth Telescope"
  16. Ruze, J. 1967, Microwave Journal, December 1968 (based on CAMROC Technical Memo No. 19, dated 10 February 1967, Cambridge Radio Observatory Committee), "Feed Support Blockage Loss in Parabolic Antennas"
  17. Lamb, J. W. & Olver, A. D. 1986, IEE Proceedings, 133, pt. H, 43, "Blockage Due to Subreflector Supports in Large Radiotelescope Antennas"
  18. Gubler, J. & Tytler, D. 1998, PASP, 110, Issue 748, 738-746 "Differential Atmospheric Refraction and Limitations on the Relative Astrometric Accuracy of Large Telescopes"
  19. Sutton, E. C.; Hueckstaedt, R. M. 1996, A&AS, 119, 559-567 "Radiometric Monitoring of Atmospheric Water Vapor as it Pertains to Phase Correction in Millimeter Interferometry"
  20. Auer, L. H. & Standish, E. M. 2000, AJ, 119, 2472-2474 "Astronomical Refraction: Computational Method for All Zenith Angles"
  21. Kerr, A. R. 1998, MMA Memo 236 "Suggestions for Revised Definitions of Noise Quantities, Including Quantum Effects"
  22. Kerr, A. R., Feldman, M. J., & Pan, S.-K. 1996, MMA Memo 161 "Receiver Noise Temperature, the Quantum Noise Limit, and the Role of the Zero-Point Fluctuations"
  23. Kooi, J. W., Chattopadhyay, G., Thielman, M., Phillips, T. G., & Schieder, R. 2000, International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 21, 689 "Noise Stability of SIS Receivers"
  24. Blundell, R. 2005, Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, April 27-29, 2004 "The Submillimeter Array -- Antennas and Receivers
  25. Cohen, M., Carbon, D. F., Welch, W. J., Lim, T., Schulz, B., McMurry, A. D., Forster, J. R., & Goorvitch, D. 2005, ApJ, 129, 2836 "Far-Infrared and Millimeter Continuum Studies of K Giants: alpha Bootis and alpha Tauri"
  26. Butler, B. 1999, VLBA Test Memo 62 "Simulation of Some Types of Holography Errors for VLBA Antennas"
  27. Saily, J. & Raisanen, A. V. 2003, Report S258, Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering, Radio Laboratory, "Studies on Specular and Non-specular Reflectivities of Radar Absorbing Materials (RAM) at Submillimetre Wavelengths"
  28. Ng, T., T.L. Landecker, F. Cazzolato, D. Routledge, A.D. Gray, R.I. Reid, & B.G. Veidt, "Polarization Properties of Reflector Antennas Used as Radio Telescopes", Radio Science, v40, RS5014, 2005
  29. Pontopiddan, K. (2002), "Technical Description of GRASP8", version 8.2.5, TICRA Eng. Consult., Copenhagen, March.


2012/12/30: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Sayers, J., Czakon, N. G., and Golwala, S. R. 2012, ApJ, 744, 169, "143 GHz Brightness Measurements of Uranus, Neptune, and Other Secondary Calibrators with Bolocam between 2003 and 2010"
    • Measure 143 GHz flux stability of Neptune and Uranus.
    • Note that WMAP has constrained Mars, Uranus, and Neptune brightness to an accuracy of ~1%, ~3%, and ~8%, respectively, by calibrating them relative to the CMB.
    • Find that Uranus and Neptune behave as ideal sources for flux calibration at 143 GHz, with no evidence for temporal brightness variations.
    • For Uranus, these results are in contrast to the lower frequency measurements at 8.6 and 90 GHz where a flux variation of ~0.5%/year has been measured. This result is not necessarily inconsistent with the lack of flux variation at 143 GHz, though, as the higher frequency measurements probe higher altitudes in the Uranus atmosphere.
  2. Hull, C. L. H., Bower, G. C., Croft, S., Williams, P. K. G., Law, C., and Whysong, D. 2010, PASP, 122, 1510, "Primary-Beam Shape Calibration from Mosaicked, Interferometric Observations"
    • Mean primary beam calibration technique.
    • Need PB for each antenna with ALMA, which this technique does not handle.
  3. Pardo, J. R., Serabyn, E., and Wiedner, M. C. 2005, Icarus, 178, 19, "Broadband Submillimeter Measurements of the Full Moon Center Brightness Temperature and Application to a Lunar Eclipse"
  4. Perley, R. and Sowinski, K. 2008, EVLA Memo 120, "Some Thoughts on System Temperature Measurements for the EVLA"
    • Very nice analysis of basics of Tsys measurement and implications for wide-bandwidth measurement.
  5. Kramer, C., Moreno, R., and Greve, A. 2008, A&A, 482, 359-363, "Long-Term Observations of Uranus and Neptune at 90 GHz with the IRAM 30m Telescope"
    • Measure decrease of ~10% (2 sigma; observational error 5%) in Uranus Tb(90 GHz) from 1985-2005 as function of sub-earth point (SEP) latitude, indicating that the south polar region is significantly brighter at millimeter wavelengths than the equatorial regions.
    • No variation of Neptune's Tb(90 GHz) observed to within the 8% observational error.

Instruments (Specific)

  1. Carter, M. etal. 2012, A&A, 538, A89, "The EMIR Multi-Band mm-Wave Receiver for the IRAM 30-m Telescope"

Site Characterization

2012/12/30: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Chapman, I. M., Naylor, D. A., and Phillips, R. R. 2004, MNRAS 354, 621 "Correlation of Atmospheric Opacity Measurements by SCUBA and an Infrared Radiometer"


2012/12/25: Copied to Zotero, but some references are not Zoteroable, so might want to keep some of these.

  1. Cotton, W. D. and Uson, J. M. 2008, A&A, 490, 455 "Pixelization and Dynamic Range in Radio Interferometry"
    • Technique (called "autoCenter") to improve mainly dynamic range reconstruction.
  2. Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs)
  3. FFTs on a Sphere:
  5. Fast convolution on the sphere
  6. Richer, J. S. and Padman, R. 1991, MNRAS 251, 707 "The Position-Velocity Diagrams of Protostellar Discs"
  7. Comito, C. and Schilke, P. 2002, A&A, 395, 357 "Reconstructing Reality: Strategies for Sideband Deconvolution"
    • Recommendations for DSB deconvolution of spectral survey data.
  8. Heiles, C. 2007, PASP, 119, 643, "A New Technique for Heterodyne Spectroscopy: Least-Squares Frequency Switching (LSFS)". As the name implies, a rather involved technique for optimizing frequency switched measurements.


2012/12/27: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Wells, D. C., Greisen, E. W., & Harten, R. H. 1981, A&AS, 44, 363-370 "FITS: A Flexible Image Transport System"
  2. Greisen, E. W. & Calabretta, M. 2002, A&A 395, 1061-1075 "Representations of World Coordinates in FITS"
  3. Calabretta, M. & Greisen, E. W. 2002, A&A 395, 1077-1122 "Representations of Celestial Coordinates in FITS"
  4. Greisen, E. W. 2002, A&A, ??? (not published yet) "Representations of Spectral Coordinates in FITS"

Observing Modes

2012/12/27: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Sawada, T. etal. 2008, PASJ, 60, 445, "On-The-Fly Observing System of the Nobeyama 45-m and ASTE 10-m Telescopes"
    • Nice detailed explanation of the OTF imaging technique developed at ASTE and NRO.
  2. Ossenkopf, V. 2009, A&A, 495, 677-690 "Optimization of Mapping Modes for Heterodyne Instruments"
    • Apparently author nor referee (if there was one) knew nothing about our A&A paper on this subject!
  3. Rodriguez-Fernandez, N. J., Pety, J., and Gueth, F. 2008 (IRAM Memo 2008-2), "Single-Dish Observation and Processing to Produce the Short-Spacing Information for a Millimeter Interferometer"
    • Spells-out how to process single-dish (total power) measurements which will be combined with interferometer data.
    • Discusses:
      • The relative weights of the single dish and interferometric data.
      • How the relative weight equation transforms into a specification of the relative integration time.
      • Several ways to weight the pseudo-visibilities.
      • Practicalities of addition of short-spacings to interferometer data.
  4. Rodriguez-Fernandez, N. J., Pety, J., and Gueth, F. 2009 (IRAM Memo 2009-2), "Imaging of Interferometric On-The-Fly Observations (I): Context and Discussion of Possible Methods"
    • Reviews different techniques to image and deconvolve mosaic data.
    • Investigates in particular the Ekers and Rots (1979) scheme.
    • Discusses how to implement an OTF-optimized imaging algorithm to deal with the mosaic data as a whole based on the Ekers and Rots (1979) scheme.
    • Discusses observing time and mosaic size constraints for OTF observations.
  5. Rodriguez-Fernandez, N. J., Gueth, F., and Pety, J. 2009 (IRAM Memo 2009-3), "A Simulator of Interferometric On-the-Fly Observations"
    • Describes simulator in Gildas.
    • Investigates in particular the Ekers and Rots (1979) scheme.
    • Discusses how to implement an OTF-optimized imaging algorithm to deal with the mosaic data as a whole based on the Ekers and Rots (1979) scheme.
    • Discusses observing time and mosaic size constraints for OTF observations.
  6. Bardeau, S., and Pety, J. 2009 (IRAM Memo 2009-4), "Averaging Spectra with CLASS"
    • Describes recent check of averaging functions in CLASS.
    • Detailed description of how averaging is done in CLASS.

Positional Astronomy

2012/12/25: Copied to Zotero, so don't need this or private library anymore...

  1. Vondrak, J., Capitaine, N., and Wallace, P. 2011, "New Precession Expressions, Valid for Long Time Intervals"

Topic revision: r119 - 2012-12-30, JeffMangum
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